Guest speaker Mark Olson, Caleffi General Manager, describes the various types of balancing valves used in hydronic and plumbing systems. The discussion begins with a review of various heat emitter types and the effect of flow rate on their heat output (or absorption). Manual valves are then reviewed including fixed orifice and variable orifice and their strengths and weaknesses. Additional topics include: valve sizing, procedure for measuring and adjusting flow, protecting valve from debris, and applications in plumbing systems such as hot water recirculation balancing. Pressure independent balancing valves and their benefits is briefly discussed towards the end.